Management Principles & Policies Chapter 2

Discipline: Management

Type of Paper: Question-Answer

Academic Level: Undergrad. (yrs 3-4)

Paper Format: APA

Pages: 1 Words: 275


Management Principles & Policies  Chapter 2

Evidence based management    means translating principles based on best evidence into organizational practice, bringing rationality to the decision making process

Two Perspectives of Management     Historical. The historical perspective includes three viewpoints-classical, behavioral, and quantitative.

Contemporary. The contemporary perspective also includes three viewpoints-systems, contingency, and quality management.

classical viewpoint     which emphasized finding ways to manage work more efficiently, had two branches – scientific and administrative – each of which is identified with particular pioneering theorists. In general, classical management assumes that people are rational.

Scientific management   emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers.

Administrative management   concerned with managing the total organization.

What 3 viewpoints fall under the HISTORICAL perspective of management?    Classical, behavioral, and quantitative

Behavioral viewpoint    emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement. Developed over three phases: (1) early behaviorism, (2) the human relations movement, and (3) behavioral science.

Human relations movement   which proposed that better human relations could increase worker productivity.

Theory X    represents a pessimistic, negative view or workers. In this view, workers are considered to be irresponsible, to be resistant to change, to lack ambition, to hate work, and to want to be led rather than led.

Theory Y   represents the outlook of human relations proponents – an optimistic, positive view of workers. In this view, workers are considered to be capable of accepting responsibility, self-directions, and self-control and of being imaginative and creative.

Behavioral science   relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers

Quantitative management:    the application to management of quantitative techniques, such as statistics and computer simulations. Two branches of quantitative management are management science and operations management.

Management science   focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making.

Operations Management    : focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization’s products or services more effectively

Three contemporary management perspectives are (1) the systems, (2) the contingency, and (3) the quality-management viewpoints.

Systems viewpoint   sees organizations as a system, either open or closed, with inputs, outputs, transformation processes, and feedback. Regards to organization as systems of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose.

Contingency viewpoint    emphasizes that a manager’s approach should vary according to the individual and environmental situation

Quality-management viewpoint: Three Approaches     Two traditional approaches: quality control – the strategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage of production and quality assurance – focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for zero defects.  (TQM) total quality management, a comprehensive approach to continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction

Inputs   1.    the people, money, information, equipment, and materials required to produce an organization’s goods or services.

Transformation processes    1.    the organization’s capabilities in management, internal processes, and technology that are applied to converting inputs into outputs.

Outputs   the products, services, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent, and the like that are produced by the organization.

Complexity theory    study of how order and pattern arise from very complicated, apparently chaotic systems.